Citation DOIs not accepted in XML upload

When we try to upload the XML for a new DOI, we frequently have citations that won’t upload because they contain the characters “<” and “>”.

For example, one of the references for our publication,, has this DOI: “<0885:FOVATT>2.3.CO;2” (the FOVATT is in brackets “<0885:FOVATT>”). Those symbols break the XML, so in order to get it to upload we have to either delete the reference or changed the brackets to square brackets “” or parentheses. That will let our DOI successfully upload, but it does give an error:“Reference DOI 10.1130/0091-7613(1995)023[0885:FOVATT]2.3.CO;2 not found in Crossref doi: 10.1130/0091-7613(1995)023[0885:FOVATT]2.3.CO;2”

What is the best way to deal with those types of references?

Thank you.

Hi @myersiodp ,

Thanks for your message, and welcome to the community forum! Appreciate the post!

Most of those special characters should not be present in our DOIs, since we stopped accepting characters like < and > in our DOIs back in 2008. That said, even though those characters are no longer being registered in DOIs, they are still being cited. If present, like in your example, those special characters need to use the encoding rules here (UTF-8): HTML URL Encoding Reference

Please let me know if you have any additional questions,

Thank you! That looks like it works!

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Excellent! Thanks for confirming.